谈话, GSAS校友杂志, 每年出版三次,并邮寄给世界各地的博士和硕士校友. 它探讨了巴黎人app下载安装杰出的教师、校友和研究生的研究和影响

霍华德·加德纳, 博士71年, wrote the book on how 改变思想, but he acknowledges that minds are not always easy—or even possible—to change.

PhD candidate 佐伊Jenkin, who studies philosophy of mind, thinks she knows why.

约翰H. 和伊丽莎白. 巴黎人app下载安装教育研究生院霍布斯认知与教育研究教授, 加德纳最著名的是他的革命性理论,即人类的聪明程度是无法通过标准的智商测试来衡量的. Almost all of his 30 books consider the mind: In them, 他分析了领导者的思想, 有创造力的人, 以及脑损伤的受害者, 等.

Amid growing national divides over hot-button issues, one of his lesser-known titles, 改变思想: The Art and Science of Changing Our Own and Other People’s Minds,似乎是有先见之明的. 怎样才能改变那些支持特定政治观点的人的想法呢? 以及如何说服那些相信气候变化是一场骗局的人——面对越来越多的相反证据?

加德纳称自己是“一个天生的悲观主义者,却过着乐观的生活”,他被美国媒体的复杂转变所震撼 改变思想 于2006年出版. “改变思想, 你必须有一个不同的阿森纳,而不是在那些看似简单的日子里,每晚只有一个新闻广播和一份人人都读的报纸,”他说. “我们当时没有社交媒体.”

加德纳认为,, depending on which news outlets or alternative information sources they follow, people are not on the same page about what constitutes reality. He says, “I can’t think of a bigger problem.”

知觉动力学

Jenkin, who studies the relationship between beliefs and perceptual experience, agrees that reality can be pretty subjective. 笛卡尔提出了一个著名的观点:现实可以归结为我们直接经历的东西:一把椅子, 例如, 我们可以感觉到和看到. 他认为,心灵的工作——理性和合理化——与肉体的工作是分离的.

詹金认为,笛卡尔错了. 詹金认为自己是少数哲学家之一,他们认为知觉的动态实际上与推理过程相似. 对于一个哲学家, her approach is uncharacteristically scientific, delving into psychology and neuroscience to explore how beliefs, 欲望, 恐惧, 情绪影响知觉.

We tend to think of 原因ing as conscious and deliberate, 就像描述陪审团在宣布被告有罪或无罪之前系统地权衡证据一样. 然而,, Jenkin说, “我们的推理方式会在完全无意识的情况下导致信念形成或信念改变.她说,我们的潜意识一直在驱动着我们的行为和信念. 我们只是没有意识到.

佐伊Jenkin sitting on a dark wooden table with her hand on her lap

佐伊Jenkin is a PhD candidate who studies philosophy of mind.

以马林巴琴实验为例. If people watch a xylophone-like instrument called a marimba being struck with a long, 全面的运动, 他们报告说听到它的音调的时间比突然敲击乐器的时间长. 然而, the duration of the sound is identical.

“撞击我们感官器官的原始数据——鼓膜上的振动或视网膜上的光线——之间存在巨大的差距, 例如,我们所经历的,”Jenkin说. 我们的大脑过程, 解释, 并将感官输入储存在我们不完全理解也无法有意识访问的网络中, but that nevertheless inform our daily experiences and, 通过扩展, 我们的推理和信念.

Jenkin draws from literature for an example. 简·奥斯汀的女主人公 艾玛, 艾玛 Woodhouse, denies that she has feelings for Mr. 奈特莉. These unacknowledged emotions dictate her behavior on more than one occasion. But for most of the book, 艾玛 doesn’t see it and won’t admit it.

在格林威治村长大的詹金对MC Escher的视觉错觉很着迷. “I’ve always been interested in how our minds work, and why we have the beliefs and perceptions that we do,”她说. After majoring in English and philosophy at Williams, it struck Jenkin that while she loved reading and analyzing literature, she wanted to apply critical thinking to the world at large, 不仅仅是小说中的世界.

在巴黎人app下载安装艺术与科学研究生院的哲学研究生项目中, she immediately set out to narrow the divide between perception and 原因.

“Most people, like Descartes, want to say that perception rules,”Jenkin说. “What we can see and touch conveys a kind of pure access to the world, 而我想说的是,感知体验就像对信念进行推理. 这一切都是在无意识中发生的.”

改变信仰

Gardner is no stranger to challenging the canon. He once published a book of essays written by his critics—then refuted each one. 他最初对智力和创造力的重新定义引起了争议,后来成为20世纪的开创性思想之一.

霍华德·加德纳 looking outside a window

霍华德·加德纳是约翰·H. 和伊丽莎白. 巴黎人app下载安装教育研究生院霍布斯认知与教育研究教授.

In 改变思想, Gardner reviews his expanded notion of intelligence: Intelligence could entail a proficiency for spoken and written language; understanding the causal relationships and numerical information essential for logic and mathematics; forming and manipulating spatial representations in one’s mind; solving problems using one’s whole body or fine motor skills; being attuned to one’s innermost self; and working effectively with and influencing others.

He identifies “six Rs” that can shift people’s thinking: resources, 原因, 研究, 共振, 表征重新描述, 和真实世界的事件. 吸收专家的意见, 故事, 图形, and ideas framed to resonate with particular audiences are all ways, 加德纳提出, 改变思想.

Take the example of President Donald Trump. In Gardner’s view, Trump’s “Strongman” persona resonates deeply with some. “As he rightly says, he could shoot people on Fifth Avenue and no one would care. 他的核心(支持者)是不可动摇的.”

If 共振 drives people to vote for Trump, perhaps that same tactic can change voters’ minds, Jenkin计数器. “Combat it with a different kind of 共振, such as another candidate who is just as emotionally compelling,”她说.

How do people decide what to believe about climate change? 詹金说,人们通常会遇到支持气候变化的科学证据,但这些证据并不能反映他们可以亲身经历的事情. “Maybe there’s one degree of global warming, but you don’t really feel that difference, even though you read news articles describing the impact it has around the world. 人们倾向于相信与他们的知觉经验相符的东西——气候没有变化——即使面对相反的事实,”她说.

Gardner thinks that presented with enough convincing evidence, climate change deniers might change their minds. 不过,这不会在一夜之间发生.

“巴黎人官方app下载改变想法,我确实相信的一点是,大马士革时刻非常罕见. 逐渐发生变化. 你甚至没有意识到这一点,”他说. “在某一时刻,你会发现自己说了一些或做了一些之前没有做过的事情,然后你说, “哎呀, 你知道, this is not the way I was a few years ago.’”

So, what will Gardner never change his mind about?

His sacred cows are universities, professions, and the truth with a capital T. “你永远无法说服我,我们应该摆脱美国大学——尽管大多数共和党人认为我们应该这样做,因为它们对国家没有好处. You’re never going to convince me that professions are bad, because even though there are a lot of bad professionals, 能够对复杂的信息给出公正的反馈是人类的一个巨大进步.

“And if you give up on truth,”他说, “forget it.”

经历对错

Gardner仍然收到成百上千封巴黎人官方app下载多重智能的电子邮件,并且亲自回复. He’s heading up national and international studies of higher education, and he lectures around the world—as we spoke, 他在自己的幻灯片上潦草地做了一些调整,准备在米兰做一次演讲。他还在思考如何回报自己在巴黎人app下载安装做了近60年的学生和巴黎人app下载安装时所过的“充满魅力”的生活. (他最近的一本书是回忆录 合成的头脑这部电影将于2020年8月上映.)

自1990年代以来, 加德纳导演了《巴黎人app下载安装》, aimed at making students more ethical citizens. He blogs frequently about education and ethics, 他说, 不一定要改变主意, but to fling his ideas into the cosmos in the hope they’ll lead to some good.

Next fall, Jenkin will join the philosophy department at Washington University in St. 担任助理教授. She, too, thinks about how we experience right and wrong. 她认为,我们经常处于自动驾驶状态——不仅仅是在物质世界中导航, but also through deeply rooted emotions that hijack the rational part of our brains. “尤其是像投票这样重要的事情,试着质疑自己是很好的,”她说. “Especially if we get a hint that something is going awry.”

“我觉得,对于那些个人生活安逸的人来说,认为世界上其他地方的一切都很好,这是非常糟糕的,”Gardner说. “I do whatever little thing I can to nudge things in a positive direction.”他停顿了一下, 微笑——在与霍华德·加德纳(霍华德·加德纳)的谈话中,他滔滔不绝地谈着自己的想法,难得有这样的间隙.

“You know,”他说, “sometimes I do feel like I’ve moved the needle a bit.”

改变思想

Emiliano Ponzi拍摄